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Jin Dynasty

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The Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) was established by the outstanding leader Wanyan Aguda of the Nvzhen tribe, living in the lower reaches of the Songhuajiang and Heilongjiang Rivers in the latter period of the Northern Song, with their capital located first at Huining (the present Acheng in Heilongjiang Province), and then at Zhongdu (the present Beijing).

The Jin was a deadly threat to the Liao. The Jin combined with the Northern Song to attack the Liao and finally in 1125 the Liao was defeated. The Northern Song was also defeated later by the Jin, in 1127. From that time, the Jin took total control of Northern China. Later, in 1140, the Jin continued to attack the newly-established Southern Song. Faced with the prowess of the famous general Yuefei's troops of the Southern Song, the Jin army suffered severe setbacks. As a consequence, coexistence was established between the two confronting powers the Southern Song and the Jin.

In order to resist the attack from the West Xia and the northern Mongols, the Jin moved their capital from Zhongdu (the present Beijing) to the south Bianjing (the present Kaifeng) City. However, which was at last conquered by the Mongolian army with the help of the Southern Song army. In 1234, the last emperor of the Jin was captured, and the Jin Dynasty collapsed. The Yuan Dynasty, another new dynasty established by the Mongols, was at hand.

At the early period when the Jin Dynasty was established, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting took major portion in economy. The advanced farm tools and techniques gradually spread to the northeastern area from the central plain. Crops and vegetables were also introduced to the farmers of Jin. Agriculture was largely supported by iron manufacturing which could provide iron tools. Many relics of iron tools and iron making sites of the Jin Dynasty were discovered in the northeastern China, which proves that iron making industry was very developed in the Jin Dynasty. Commerce was also gradually flourished. The government set many markets for trading activities with the West Xia and Southern Song Dynasty. Huining, Zhongdu, Kaifeng and Jinan were large commercial centers at that time.

After the Jin Dynasty was established, the culture of Han people was gradually accepted by the Nüzhen people, especially those nobles. They began to read poems and learn music of the Han people. Some Nüzhen people even dressed like Han people. However, their special love for force and power and their bold and brave spirit gradually disappeared, and that was one of the reasons why the Jin Dynasty collapsed.

 Go to the Song, Liao, West Xia dynasties

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